The trees needed for the house should be holded upright a little longer, until the juice from them drains down (and you can know if there are any wormy trees among them). From the trees suitable for the home there is a fir, because it is light and strong, and dry. Palladium teaches that the violet willow, like a larch, is very good at house building, especially for the roofs, the wood will not burn soon and will not make the heat, the oak is very strong, especially in the butt, a chestnut tree is also solid as dry or wet, suitable for walls and a roofing, and for the interior walls, a dry beech is also sturdy, but it rots in the damp, a poplar, a sycamore, a linden and a willow are suitable for carving, for the mansion an alder doesn’t fit, although the base is very strong, a fresh ash and an elm are very flexible, although they are firm and strong in a dryness; a cypress is suitable for everything, a pine and a pear are strong in a drynes too, and a cedar wood is always firm.
Mainly, for the building of the log houses the carpenters use: a pine, a spruce, a larch and a cedar.
From a hardwood sometimes are used a aspen, a willow and an oak.
The wod is a traditional building material of the
Russian architecture. For the construction of wooden houses or saunas you may use various types of wood, it is only important that it is qualitative.
However, there are specific reasons that the frame house in the old days, was cut out of a pine, a fir or a cedar, at least – a larch
and the bath, for example, was cut from an aspen or a lime.
Different species of wood used for various purposes:
* The oak goes on piles, windows and doors;
* Te fir goes on sleepers, beams, rafters and flooring, ceilings and roofs;
* The pine goes on a felling of stands;
* The larch goes for the lower rims of a log house (lit doesn’t rot for a long time and burns hard);
* The alder and the elm are for chimneys, stayed in a water;
* The linden and the maple are for a carving and a woodwork.
Folded in the foot with an air, the logs were dried for 1 - 2 years, smoked over a campfire, and their butts fired or resined.
The quality of wood is determined by watering on the trunk a hemp or a flax oil. If the log drank it quickly and a lot, then it was considered ready for crafts. It also confirmed by the pure ringing sound when strucking an ax on the timber.
I will not describe in detail the properties of each of these species. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages, and depending on the purpose of building or other property of a particular breed can act as an advantage and a disadvantage ...
For the log home building previously adopted the following standards:
A diameter of logs should allow to obtain the necessary climatic conditions of the longitudinal width (girth) of grooves for the estimated ambient temperature:
* At -20 ° C at least 10-12 cm
* At -30 ° C at least 12-13 cm
* At -40 ° C at least 14-16 cm
In Russia, the log houses were traditionally built of a pine.
If we take a "heat protection" of the walls of a log or a beam of a pine as 100%, and the same walls of a spruce or a cedar will be approximately 10% "warmer" than from the pine, and from the larch is 25-30% "colder" than from the pine.
The structure of the cells of a sap wood of pine in the process of drying stays "open", closes only the structure of the heartwood, while the structure of the cells of the spruce is identical and "closes" during the drying process.
Because of differences in the cellular structure, the spruce absorps a moisture less than the pine, so the volume vibration caused by the moisture of the spruce is insignificant. For this reason, the spruce is often used for the floor beams, manufacturing a ledger.
The open structure of the pine cells gives it a high value of a breathability and a moisture permeability, especially with regard to the sapwood. When the excess pressure of 0.1 MPa (from one side of the sample), the value of the air permeability in the radial direction for the sap wood is 56.2 cu. mm / sq. cm / s and for the heart is 2.6 cu. mm / cm / sec. For comparison, the value of air permeability of oak trees at the same pressure is 0.13 cu. mm / sq. cm / sec.
At the same time, a biological stability of the pine sapwood is higher than that of the spruce and even the larch.